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Muscles of the Arm and Forearm (Anterior) (Advanced)

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Muscles of the Arm and Forearm (Anterior View)

Muscles that Cross the Elbow (Moving the Forearm) (Anterior)

1) Deltoid (Visible, but not part of this group as it moves arm from the shoulder)


2) Biceps brachii
a. Actions: flexes and supinates forearm (supinate rotates forearm laterally) –
these act together for pulling tissue from tissue box, also a minor arm flexor
b. Innervation: Musculocutaneous nerve
c. Origin: from coracoid process and supraglenoid tubercle on scapula
d. Insertion: through intertubercular groove of humerus to insert on
                        radial tuberosity

3) Triceps brachii (Visible, but posterior)

4) Brachialis
a. Actions: flexes forearm
b. Innervation: Musculocutaneous nerve
c. Origin: from anterior distal humerus
d. Insertion: to coronoid process of the ulna

5) Brachioradialis
a. Actions: flexes forearm (though doesn’t initiate flexion)
b. Innervation: Radial nerve
c. Origin: from distal humerus
d. Insertion: to styloid process of the radius

Muscles of the Forearm (Moving Wrist, Hand and Fingers)
(Anterior Compartment – Flexors)

l. Superficial Muscles

6) Pronator teres
a. Actions: pronates (medial rotates) forearm, weak flexor of the forearm
b. Innervation: Median nerve
c. Origin: from medial epicondyle of the humerus and coronoid process of ulna
d. Insertion: to the lateral shaft of the radius

7) Flexor carpi radialis
a. Actions: flexes wrist, abducts hand, week flexor at elbow
b. Innervation: Median nerve
c. Origin: from medial epicondyle of the humerus
d. Insertion: to the base of 2nd and 3rd metacarpals (wrist pulse area)

8) Palmaris longus
a. Actions: weak wrist flexor
b. Innervation: Median Nerve
c. Origin: from medial epicondyle of the humerus
d. Insertion: to the palmar aponeurosis

9) Flexor carpi ulnaris
a. Actions: flexes wrist, adducts hand
b. Innervation: Ulnar nerve
c. Origin: from medial epicondyle of  humerus and
                  olecranon process of ulna
d. Insertion: to the base of the 5th metacarpal and
                       pisiform bone (carpal).

10) Flexor digitorum superficialis
a. Actions: flexes wrist, flexes middle phalanges of fingers 2-5
        (important finger flexor for fast flexion against resistance)
b. Innervation: Medial nerve
c. Origin: from medial epicondyle of the humerus, coronoid
                  process of ulna, and shaft or radius
d. Insertion: to the four tendons into the middle phalanges
                       of fingers 2-5.

ll. Deep Muscles
11) Flexor pollicus longus
a. Actions: flexes distal phalanx of thumb, weak wrist flexor
b. Innervation: Median nerve
c. Origin: from anterior radius
d. Insertion: to distal phalanx of thumb

12) Flexor digitorum profundus
a. Actions: flexes fingers, weak wrist flexor, flexes distal interphalangeal joint
b. Innervation: Median nerve does lateral half,
                         Ulnar nerve does medial half of muscle
c. Origin: from anterior medial surface of ulna
d. Insertion: into four tendons of distal phalanges of fingers 2-5

13) Pronator Quadratus
a. Actions: pronates forearm (with pronator teres),
                    holds radius and ulna together
b. Innervation: Median nerve
c. Origin: from anterior distal ulna
d. Insertion: to distal anterior radius

Not muscles:
14) Flexor retinaculum: (also called the transverse carpal
      ligament and forms the carpal tunnel)

15) Palmar aponeurosis: (fascia that lies over the tendons of hand)

 

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Muscles of the Arm and Forearm (Anterior View)
Muscles of the Arm and Forearm (Anterior View)
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